CAR ENGINES: Carburetors

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The carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876. A carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882, for his “Motrice Pia”, the first petrol combustion engine (one cylinder, 121.6 cc) prototyped on 5 August 1882.

A carburetor was among the early[when?] patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.

Early carburetors were the surface carburetor type, in which air is charged with fuel by being passed over the surface of gasoline.

The world’s first carburetor for the stationary engine was invented by the Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki in 1893. Parallel to this, the Austrian automobile pioneer Siegfried Marcus invented the rotating brush carburetor.

Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, England, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline-driven car in England: a single cylinder 5 hp (3.7 kW) internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a two-cylinder horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design.

In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle.

Carburetors were the usual method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline-fueled engines up until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method. This change was dictated more by the requirements of catalytic converters than by any inherent inefficiency of carburation; a catalytic converter requires much more precise control over the fuel / air mixture, to closely control the amount of oxygen in the exhaust gases. In the U.S. market, the last carbureted cars were:

1990 (General public) : Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude (Base Model), Subaru Justy
1991 (Police) : Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L (351 cu in) V8 engine.
1991 (SUV) : Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in (5.9 L) V8 engine.
1993 Mazda B2200 (Light Truck)
1994 (Light truck) : Isuzu
In Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s; these included the Honda Civic (1993), the Ford Laser (1994), the Mazda 323 and Mitsubishi Magna sedans (1996), the Daihatsu Charade (1997), and the Suzuki Swift (1999). Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity’s sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function. Carburetors are also still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR’s 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines; electronic fuel injection was used beginning with the 2012 race season in Cup.

In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being gradually phased out by the end of the 1980s in favour of fuel injection, which was already the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; among the last carburetor-engined models produced in these countries were most of the Ford Fiesta MK2 range (1989) as well as cheaper versions of the Nissan Primera (1990) and Peugeot’s 106 and 405 range – the French built 106 went into production just over a year before carburetor engines were outlawed in the EEC.

Because of the method of air/fuel mixture in carburetor engines, it has a low fuel economy compared to fuel injector engines, so if you are driving a car fitted with carburetor engine, and you think your car is fuel consuming, then you should consider saving to get a fuel injector fitted car.

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DRIVETRAIN

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Drivetrain
The drivetrain of a motor vehicle is the group of components that deliver power to the driving wheels. This excludes the engine or motor that generates the power. In contrast, the powertrain is considered as including both the engine or motor, and the drivetrain.

Function:
The function of the drivetrain is to couple the engine that produces the power to the driving wheels that consume this mechanical power. This connection involves physically linking the two components, which may be at opposite ends of the vehicle and so requiring a long propeller shaft or drive shaft. The operating speed of the engine and wheels are also different and must be matched by the correct gear ratio. As the vehicle speed changes, the ideal engine speed must remain approximately constant for efficient operation and so this gearbox ratio must also be changed, either manually, automatically or by an automatic continuous variation.

Components:
The precise components of the drivetrain vary, according to the type of vehicle.

Some typical examples:

Manual transmission car
Engine
① Clutch
② Gearbox or stick-shift transmission
③ Overdrive (Only rarely fitted)
④ Propeller shaft
⑤ Rear axle
⑥ Final drive
⑦ Differential

Automatic transmission car
Engine
① Torque converter
② Transmission
③ Propeller shaft
④ Rear axle
⑤ Final drive
⑥ Differential

Front-wheel drive car
Engine
① Clutch
② Transaxle
③ Gearbox
④ Final drive
⑤ Differential
⑥ Drive shafts and constant-velocity joints to each wheel

Four-wheel drive off-road vehicle
Engine
① Clutch
② Gearbox
③ Transfer box
④ Transmission brake
⑤ Propeller shafts, to front and rear
⑥ Front and rear axles
⑦ Final drive
⑧ Locking differential
⑨ Portal gear

some of these listed drivetrain can be combined by some Manufacturers. For instance, You can have Automatic Front-wheel drive, and you can also have automatic Four-wheel drive, and then there is the All-wheel drive drivetrain.

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UNDERSTANDING YOUR CAR ENGINE Prt2

Car manufacturers have brought the internal combustion engines to near perfection in the various engine types that have been developed. From the engine Power (V4, V6, V8, V10…….) to the engine drivetrain (VTEC, IVTEC, TD, TDI, VVT, VVTI. ……), car engines have been masterfully designed to make life easy for both drivers and passengers alike. Before we begin to discuss the various kinds of modern car engines and their manufacturers (so as to help your locate where your car belongs and begin to understand your car), we will first let you know what a drivetrain is.

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UNDERSTANDING YOUR CAR ENGINE Prt1

Although various forms of internal combustion engines were developed before the 19th century, their use was hindered until the commercial drilling and production of petroleum began in the mid-1850s. By the late 19th century, engineering advances led to their widespread adoption in a variety of applications.

The internal combustion engine (ICE) is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir.[1]

The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.[1]

The ICE is quite different from external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats.

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WHAT’S YOUR CAR TO YOU?

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Cars……an asset? A liability? A monument? A show piece? A toy? A car means different things to different people, but the fact remains that if each individual knew the full potentiality of their cars, it would mean a lot more. For me, every car is an asset as well as a show piece, be it a 1992 Honda accord, a 2000 Toyota hiace, a 2005 maybach 52, or a 2014 lexus rx 450h. Every car is what you make of it, but everyone of it is a beauty, a product of of someone’s long standing imagination. Ultimately, the heartbeat of every car, the life of any mobility machine is the engine. A good engine makes a good, a great engine makes a great car, and of course an awesome engine makes an awesome car. We’ll be discussing engines in the next few days, ranging from the carburetor, to injector, to hybrid, to electric engines. Whatever car you drive, you are about to understand your engine!

BEST OF CARS

The best of cars began to surface in the 90s, when cars were becoming more comfortable, more sleek, faster, safer, more fuel efficient and carrying lots of tech gadgets. So anyone driving any car model from 1992 to 2014, chances are you have never scratched a bit of your car’s capabilities. The next few months, will awaken us to the wonders behind our wheels. After you find out about your car’s full pontentials and begin to explore it, you will never feel embarrassed about driving a 1992 model car again, and you’ll never embarrass that 2014 model car anymore.

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1992 Honda accord

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1999 Toyota camry

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2000 Honda accord

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2013 Honda civic

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2014 Toyota corolla

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2014 Lexus rx 350

YOUR CAR CAN DO A LOT MORE THAN JUST DRIVE

Lots of people have great cars, but only very few understand or get the best out of their cars. It’s amazing what most cars can do that owners don’t know. To start with, most car owners have never read the manuals of their cars, let alone do further research about their cars. Imagine someone skidding off the road in a Toyota corolla, someone stuck in the mud in a grand cherokee, someone rolling over (or somersaulting) in a BMW x5, or someone loosing his way in a lexus rx 350, or even people quarrelling over the A/C temperature in a Honda accord. If you knew what these cars were capable of, you’d understand the joke in each scenario.
However, we are here to help you get the best, and only the best out of your car. Ask any question at anytime,  we’ll be glad to answer as far cars are concerned.

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